Smoking tobacco out of a pipe has been a worldwide practice for centuries. Shops sprang up that catered to pipe and often cigar smokers. Flavored blends sold in bulk could be sampled right on the premises in smoke rooms set up for patrons. Pipe tobacco is loose-leaf tobacco most commonly grown in northern middle Tennessee, western Kentucky, and Virginia. It is fire-cured, which involves slowly smoking the drying tobacco leaves over a smoldering hardwood fire inside of a barn or structure. The process can take days to weeks, and the end result is a tobacco that is low in sugar and high in nicotine. Most pipe tobacco is aromatic, having had a flavoring added to the finished product that gives it a depth and richness in taste and smell. Pipe tobacco is addictive.
Dutch clay pipes from Gouda
The guide even includes an illustrated list of the different kinds of mud , which in its seriousness may be amusing to some! Most locations have either patches or whole banks of shingle, some interspersed with areas of sand, others with areas of mud. For most visitors the fragments of clay tobacco pipe are the most memorable novelties, and a trademark of the Thames foreshore.
Pieces of pipe-stem are easy to pick up in certain areas, complete bowls less so..
Object Type: smoking-pipe Production date: (before) 15 Dec- 30 Oct, Museum of Mankind, Room 9; Smoking Pipes of the North American.
The clay tobacco pipe is an exceptional tool for dating archaeological sites from the historic period because it has undergone a series of stylistic changes over its history of production. The importance of these stylistic changes becomes apparent when one considers that the fragile nature and inexpensive cost of clay pipes resulted in their being smoked, broken and discarded all within the period of a year or two.
A large part of the research on clay pipes has dealt with the identification of marks with which makers identified their product. If a particular mark and pipe bowl can be identified, then so can its place of origin, the date range within which it was made and therefore, a basic time frame for when it was deposited. This article deals specifically with the marked clay tobacco pipes excavated from Ferryland, NL, encompassing examples from both the 17th and 18th centuries.
The origins of the clay tobacco pipe date back to the s when tobacco smoking first became fashionable in England. According to William Harrison “In these daies the taking-in of the smoke of the Indian herbe called ‘Tobaco’ by an instrument formed like a little ladell, whereby it passeth from the mouth into the head and stomach, is gretlie taken-up and used in England” Harrison as cited in Oswald It is not known for certain whether these early smoking instruments were made of clay, but by the s, there is specific reference to the use of clay pipes fashioned for tobacco smoking Oswald By the early part of the 17th century, the clay tobacco pipe industry began to develop in many local centres throughout Britain and in many parts of the Netherlands.
Most of these locally-made clay pipes had a limited distribution within their area of manufacture but in the cases of port towns and overseas trading centres, some clay pipes were shipped to the North American colonies. These early pipes typically had a short stem with a large bore diameter and a small “acorn” shaped, rouletted bowl that angled away from the smoker.
As the tobacco pipe evolved throughout the 17th century, its stem became longer, its bore size progressively smaller and its bowl larger. By the early 18th century, it developed into a larger straight-sided form with no rouletting around the rim and the bowl perpendicular to the stem. Makers’ marks found on pipes from both the 17th and 18th centuries fall into two main categories, relief and incuse.
Put This in Your Pipe and Smoke it : An Evaluation of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Methods
They are still somewhat a mystery, despite their presence across all continents for thousands of years. It seems as though nobody can accurately date the first appearances of the pipe. The first tobacco pipes found in Europe, from around BC, were made of wooden stems or reed.
Among these objects was this brass pipe described on the accompanying label as: this date, a high quality European-style smoking pipe had been accepted.
A tobacco pipe , often called simply a pipe , is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. It comprises a chamber the bowl for the tobacco from which a thin hollow stem shank emerges, ending in a mouthpiece. Pipes can range from very simple machine-made briar models to highly prized hand-made artisanal implements made by renowned pipemakers, which are often very expensive collector’s items.
Pipe smoking is the oldest known traditional form of tobacco smoking. Some Native American cultures smoke tobacco in ceremonial pipes , and have done so since long before the arrival of Europeans. Other American Indian cultures smoke tobacco socially. Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century and spread around the world rapidly.
Dating of Charatans
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The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist advice should certainly be taken when dealing with large assemblages or those where the pipe dating is fundamental to the excavated deposits. But it is certainly possible for a good assessment of date to be made by considering the key characteristics of any given pipe or pipe assemblage, guidelines for which are given below.
They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group. They can also be used to check any dates provided by associated bowl forms, marks or decoration, which can be especially useful for smaller contexts where only a few such pieces are present. There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric and finish.
As a result, fragments usually show a clear taper along their length and can be quite chunky if the fragment comes from near the bowl. Some pipes were burnished during this period and many areas of the Midlands and northern England exploited local clays, where these were available. A fine sandy fabric was used in the Oxford area and pipes from areas with access to the Coal Measures often employed clays with opaque white gritty inclusions in them.
Stem stamps are only rarely found. As a result, they are generally rather cylindrical in appearance with less evidence of any stem taper. Burnishing was still used in some areas, but very rarely in the far south west, the south east and East Anglia. Local clays with inclusions were rarely used after about Stems were straight until the late eighteenth century when curved varieties were introduced.
Initials or full name marks placed across the top of the stem were most frequently employed in central southern England and the West Midlands, while decorative stem borders were most often employed in the Midlands and north.
Appendix 3: The Clay Tobacco Pipes
There follows a summary of pipe fragments, in date order, including details of makers, where known. Only two small, barrel-shaped bowls of this date were recovered, both retrieved from contexts and , which also contained pipe fragments of probable later 17th century date. One of the bowls is marked with the initials, ‘PE’, incuse, on the pedestal heel see Figure He was one of the more important founder members of the Bristol Pipemakers Guild in and one of the feoffees of the St Michael’s church lands from c.
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Whether the Peterson firm will soon be celebrating its one hundred and fiftieth anniversary, hundredth and a half, or third fiftieth anniversary makes little difference: the occasion speaks for itself. It would be interesting to line up all the pipes ever produced, including from now to , starting from Dublin to see where they would end up, but there is no need, for Peterson pipes are already everywhere.
There are a huge number of Peterson pipe lovers worldwide, as well as a number of detractors, as happens with products of a certain character. Not only do they smoke the pipes, but many also collect them, which is already a complex task in itself, as it is not easy to navigate a story that started almost years ago. This is because production began in the early days of briar pipes, launched through important, nineteenth century patents, and over time the firm increased its range of pipes, varying shape, size and finish, developing its different series and introducing some unique pieces.
Thus, the aim was to produce pipes on a large scale, but also issue some limited editions, so that the focus was on both the practical aspects of their pipes and on the aesthetic and high quality features, without neglecting the price issue. Thus, the firm evolved in relative stability, which is how it should be if one wishes to last years. The intricacies of its production are almost jungle-like — lush and rather dense. It is up to the great collectors to find their way through the tangle of information and provide some reliable pathways for accurate dating.
For products from the s, many experts frequently privilege reconstructing the different series or collections over the chronological aspects.
Dating Smoking Pipes
Particular styles are used to date levels even more finely. Since the margin of error of up to one hundred years in radiocarbon dating becomes critical after c. i 6oo.
Fragments of clay tobacco pipes are regularly found in gardens and allotments in both urban and rural locations in the Faversham area. Such a common and fragile artefact has become an important dating aid for archaeologists working on sites from the late 16th to 19th centuries. Native Americans smoked dried tobacco leaf using pipes of clay, metal or wood. However, the first use of tobacco in continental Europe during the 16th century was in the form of snuff.
Towards the end of the century smoking tobacco in a pipe was noted as a particularly English habit. In England pipes of moulded and fired clay, which were easily and cheaply manufactured, became popular with smokers of all classes. Research into the development of pipe design, based on examples datable by other means, has identified changes in form which suggest a chronological progression. Later, pipes got larger, and the shape changed Fig 2.
It was also noted that the bowl became more upright and the angle between the mouth and the stem got flatter as the form developed. After the later date bore size become less reliable as a dating aid. Pipes with simple embossed decoration occurred from the early 17th century. However, complex and sophisticated decoration become more common in the 18th century.